Antonio Gramsci (January 22, 1891-April 27, 1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher, journalist, linguist, writer, and politician. He wrote on philosophy, political theory, sociology, history, and linguistics. He was a founding member and one-time leader of the Communist Party of Italy. A vocal critic of fascist Benito Mussolini, he was imprisoned in 1926 where he remained until his death in 1937.
Gramsci wrote more than 30 notebooks and 3,000 pages of history and analysis during his imprisonment. His Prison Notebooks are considered a highly original contribution to 2oth century political theory, as is The Modern Prince and other Writings.