Alexia D. Speransky (January 11, 1888-July 23, 1961) was a Russian experimental pathologist. Born in Urzhum, Speransky graduated from Kazan University in 1911. In 1920, he became professor of the chair of operative surgery at the University of Irkutsk. From 1923 to 1928, Speransky worked as an assistant to Ivan Pavlov in Leningrad. He organized and headed an experimental department at the Institute for Surgical Neuropathology (1926), departments at the Leningrad Institute of Experimental Medicine (1928), and the Institute for Experimental Medicine (1934). In 1945 he was appointed director of the Institute of General and Experimental Pathology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. In 1954, after the reorganization of the institute, he was appointed head of the Department of General Pathology.
Alexei Speransky was a member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, awarded the Pavlov Prize, two orders of Lenin, the Stalin Prize, and was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.